Is There Anything Else I Should Know
The different methods of detecting protein in the urine vary in performance. For example, a positive dipstick protein may be elevated due to other sources of protein, such as blood, semen, or vaginal secretions in the urine. Since it measures primarily albumin, the dipstick may occasionally be normal when significant quantities of other proteins are present in the urine.
A 24-hour urine sample gives the protein elimination rate over 24 hours. It will be accurate only if all of the urine is collected. The protein to creatinine ratio is more of a snapshot of how much protein is in the urine at the time the sample is collected. If it is elevated, then protein is present if it is negative, the amounts or the type of protein released in urine may not be detectable at that time.
Protein In Urine Symptoms
Most people who have proteinuria wonât notice any signs, especially in early or mild cases. Over time, as it gets worse, you might have symptoms including:
- Foamy or bubbly pee
- A family history of kidney disease
- African American, Native American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander descent
Some people get more protein into their urine while standing than while lying down. This condition is called orthostatic proteinuria.
Treating And Preventing Kidney Stones
Most kidney stones are small enough to be passed in your urine, and it may be possible to treat the symptoms at home with medication.
Larger stones may need to be broken up using ultrasound or laser energy. Occasionally, keyhole surgery may be needed to remove very large kidney stones directly.
Read more about treating kidney stones.
Itâs estimated that up to half of all people who have had kidney stones will experience them again within the following five years.
To avoid getting kidney stones, make sure you drink plenty of water every day so you donât become dehydrated. Itâs very important to keep your urine diluted to prevent waste products forming into kidney stones.
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Further Tests For Nephrotic Syndrome
Sometimes, further tests may be required. These may include:
- ultrasound an examination of the kidneys using sound waves to outline the structure of the organs
- computed tomography scan uses x-rays and digital computer technology to create detailed two- or three-dimensional images of the internal organs and tissues
- magnetic resonance imaging uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to provide clear and detailed pictures of internal organs and tissues.
Who Should Have Their Urine Routinely Tested For Proteinuria
NICE has suggested that the following people should be considered for a urine test for proteinuria:
- People with kidney function known to be less than 65% of normal. This assessment is made using a blood test for your kidney measurement, called your estimated glomerular filtration rate .
- People with diabetes.
- People with heart and blood vessel disease .
- People with complex diseases which may involve the kidneys – for example, systemic lupus erythematosus or myeloma.
- People with a family history of kidney failure or a family history of inherited kidney disease.
- People found to have blood in their urine.
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How Is Proteinuria Treated
Treatment depends on the underlying condition that caused proteinuria. Each condition requires different treatments.
If kidney disease is confirmed, a treatment plan might include medication, diet changes, weight loss and exercise. Diabetes and hypertension patients with proteinuria might need blood pressure medication, and those with diabetes will have to control their blood sugar. Diabetes patients should receive glomerular filtration rate blood tests every year and may be referred to a nephrologist, a doctor who specializes in the kidneys.
Pregnant women with preeclampsia should be watched carefully. The condition, although serious during pregnancy, usually resolves itself once the baby is born. Proteinuria patients with low blood pressure should schedule annual urine tests and blood pressure checks.
If proteinuria isnt accompanied by diabetes, high blood pressure or any other medical condition, blood pressure medication still might be prescribed to prevent kidney damage. Blood pressure and urine should be checked every six months to make sure kidney disease isnt present. As for those with mild or temporary proteinuria, treatment may not be necessary.
What Else Causes Protein In Urine
Proteinuria causes are linked to other conditions. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease , and kidney damage from those two conditions can result in proteinuria. Lupus, arthritis and other immune system disorders can also cause proteinuria. Protein in the urine can even be a warning sign of pre-eclampsia during pregnancy.
Risk Factors For Proteinuria
Certain people are more likely to develop proteinuria. Common risk factors include:
- Age. Adults 65 and older are more susceptible to dehydration and kidney issues. Pregnant people older than 40 have a greater risk of preeclampsia.
- High blood pressure. People with high blood pressure have higher risk for diabetes and kidney disorders.
- Diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of CKD. Its also associated with preeclampsia and glomerulonephritis.
- Family history. Youre more likely to develop proteinuria if you have a family history of kidney disease or preeclampsia.
- Certain ethnicities. People of African American, Latino, American Indian, and Asian descent have a greater risk of kidney issues.
- Being overweight or obese. High blood pressure, diabetes, and preeclampsia are associated with being overweight or obese.
In the early stages of kidney damage, you wont have any symptoms. Thats because there are only small amounts of protein in your urine.
But as kidney damage progresses, more protein will pass into your urine. This may cause symptoms like:
What Can Be Done If The Urinalysis Reveals Proteinuria With Signs Of Bleeding And Inflammation
If the urinalysis reveals inflammation or bleeding, your veterinarian may recommend further testing to look for conditions such as bacterial infection, bladder stones, prostatic disease , vaginitis , and cancer, etc. Following treatment, a repeat urinalysis is recommended to determine if the inflammation, bleeding, and proteinuria have disappeared.
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How Does Protein Get Into Urine
Protein gets into the urine if the kidneys arent working properly. Normally, glomeruli, which are tiny loops of capillaries in the kidneys, filter waste products and excess water from the blood.
Glomeruli pass these substances, but not larger proteins and blood cells, into the urine. If smaller proteins sneak through the glomeruli, tubules recapture those proteins and keep them in the body.
However, if the glomeruli or tubules are damaged, if there is a problem with the reabsorption process of the proteins, or if there is an excessive protein load, the proteins will flow into the urine.
Treatment Of Kidney Failure
Kidney failure can be a debilitating and life threatening condition with symptoms such as lethargy, weakness, generalized swelling, shortness of breath, congestive heart failure and fatal heart rhythm disturbances. If your kidney is failing, treatment of the underlying disease may be the first step in correcting the problem.
Many causes of kidney failure are treatable and visiting a urologist will ensure the underlying condition is diagnosed and treated to restore normal function. The urologist may also plan for control of blood pressure, diabetes or other underlying conditions as a way of preventing chronic kidney disease. But in some situations, kidney failure is progressive and irreversible. When that happens, the only treatment options are dialysis or transplant, each with benefits and drawbacks.
Whatever treatment your urologist recommends, you will need to make some changes in your life, including how you eat and plan your activities. With the help of your urologist, family and friends, you can continue to lead a full and active life. For more information on symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and management of kidney failure, visit the St Pete Urology website.
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How Long Will I Have To Wait For A Transplant If I Need One
The process of getting listed for a kidney transplant often begins after you your evaluation. The average wait time for a kidney from a deceased donor is 3-5 years. If you have a donor who is willing and able to give you a kidney, you can have your transplant as soon as both you and your donor are ready. Learn more about the kidney transplant waiting list and what you can do while you wait.
What Does Proteinuria Mean
Proteinuria refers to the excessive excretion of protein through the urine. Normally, there should be no more than 150mg of protein per day in the urine. An increased protein level in the urine can have harmless causes, but it can also indicate more serious diseases.
In addition, persistent proteinuria will eventually cause renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency is also called chronic kidney failure. As the name suggests, the kidneys no longer work properly. The cause is always other chronic diseases.
The tricky thing about renal failure is that it is irreversible. This means that the damage to the kidneys can no longer be repaired. Renal insufficiency develops gradually and proceeds in four stages. In the early stages, those affected do not yet feel any symptoms, but they may already recognize signs.
For example, they may notice that their urine is foamy or green in color. In the next stage, compensated retention, laboratory tests of the blood show that creatinine is too high, but the kidneys are still working adequately. Patients may become tired more quickly or have higher blood pressure.
The third stage is called decompensated retention and is already accompanied by more severe symptoms such as loss of appetite, nausea, muscle cramps, and pain. The kidneys no longer work particularly well and the risk of infections also increases increasingly.
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Protein In Urine Treatment
Proteinuria a sign of another illness. So treatment depends on figuring out what caused it. You might not need treatment if proteinuria is mild or lasts only a short time. But itâs crucial to treat kidney disease before it leads to kidney failure.
Your doctor might prescribe medication, especially if you have diabetes and/or high blood pressure. Most people will take one of two types of blood pressure medicine:
How Much Protein Do We Need
A subsequent WHO meta analysis of mostly the same underlying data supplemented by more recent studies comes to much the same conclusions, but in perhaps a more nuanced manner. A more recent analytical critique of the whole matter is not remarkably far off in estimates for adults, though pregnancy and childhood seem controversial.
This summary graph from the critique gives a sense of how the protein requirements are set. The median requirement is where about half of all studied subjects were in neutral nitrogen balance their body protein mass would be stable, a very important matter. The safe population intake is set higher. The safe individual value is high enough enough that 97.5% of the individuals in a population would be in balance: almost all people would not lose protein mass consuming this amount of protein for example muscle. The Safe population intake is set higher. Although the safe individual intake is correct, within a population individual requirements vary, so the recommended level needs to be increased so that 97.5% of the individuals in a population offered that recommendation will be in balance.
That number from the WHO meta-analysis, the safe population intake, is about 1.05 gm/kg body weight/day.
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Who Is At Risk For Nephrotic Syndrome
Anyone can get nephrotic syndrome but it is slightly more common in men than in women. In children, it happens most often between the ages of 2 and 6. There are other factors that may increase your risk. You are more likely to get nephrotic syndrome if you:
- Have a disease that affects the kidneys such as FSGS, lupus, or diabetes
- Take certain medicines like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics
- Have an infection such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, or malaria
Treatment Of Protein In Urine
The treatment of proteinuria depends on the cause of the problem. If what generates it is a secondary disease, you should treat it so that the presence of protein in the urine ceases.
Most commonly, doctors prescribe medications of two types when the underlying disease is diabetes or hypertension. The first are the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, we know them as ACE, for their acronym in English. The second are the angiotensin receptor blockers, or ARB.
Both medications are usually prescribed when the underlying disease is diabetes or hypertension. However, even if these health problems are not present, doctors also order such drugs to prevent kidney damage. In any case, the presence of proteins in the urine is always a reason for medical consultation.
Dont forget to what too much protein in urine means and how to treat it with your friends and family on your social networks!
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Diagnosis Of Nephrotic Syndrome
Diagnosing nephrotic syndrome involves a number of tests, including:
- urine tests excessive protein makes the urine appear frothy and foamy. A test for albumin/creatinine ratio may be done to measure the amount of albumin in the urine in relation to the amount of creatinine
- blood tests these estimate the glomerular filtration rate , which shows how well the kidneys are working
- biopsy a small sample of kidney tissue is taken and examined in a laboratory.
How To Stop Protein Leaking From Kidneys
Since protein leakage is itself a symptom, the underlying therapy is aimed at diagnosing the cause and treating it. For example if the cause is high blood pressure, all efforts are made to control hypertension with medications. In the same way if patient is diabetic he needs to control his diabetes so that it can restrict damage to the kidneys.
Patient should also restrict intake of salt in his diet. Depending on the amount of damage, doctors also advise to restrict intake of dietary protein. Persistent as well as intermittent loss of protein from kidney requires regular or at least six monthly check up of urine till proteinuria completely disappears.
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Complications Of Nephrotic Syndrome
Complications of nephrotic syndrome can include:
- dehydration low protein levels may lead to a reduction in blood volume. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be given to boost the bodys water content
- blood clots these occur in the leg veins and occasionally in the kidney veins. Blood clots can also go into the lungs and cause chest pain, breathlessness or coughing up of blood
- infection infection and inflammation of the peritoneal cavity. This is the thin elastic lining that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder and other organs. A fever may indicate infection
- kidney failure without treatment, the kidneys may fail in extreme cases
- high blood pressure
Whats The Ratio Of Albumin To Protein In Urine
A further reading centred on the ration of albumin to creatinine is made from analyzing your urine in the laboratory. The 24 hour urine protein creatinine ratio must not exceed 0.15. High levels of protein in urine are above 20mg/dL. They vary depending on the test that you are undergoing.
Protein in Urine Levels. Protein in Urine Normal Range. The protein in urine normal range is calculated in milligrams per deciliter. Protein in urine normal range is set at 20 mg/dL as the upper limit.
If a randomly collected sample shows a problem with the levels of protein in your urine, your doctor may want you to have the 24-hour urine test. Results from testing for proteinuria are classified into 24-hour urine analysis results and spot urine results.
Genes And Lifestyle Choices Affect Your Health:
You get your genes from your parents. Your genes give you your personal traits, such as being tall or short or having brown or blue eyes. Your genes can also make you more at risk for diabetes, high blood pressure or kidney disease. However, having a family member with diabetes, high blood pressure or kidney disease does not mean that you will definitely have one of these diseases.
Your lifestyle and habits are how you choose to live each day. We cant change our genes, but we can choose to live a healthy lifestyle, and sometimes this can help work against genes that increase your risk for disease. You can lower your risk for kidney disease by making healthy choices.
- Control your blood pressure
- Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes
- Follow a low-salt, low-fat diet
- Do not smoke or use tobacco
- Limit alcohol
Why You Get Stones
Part of preventing stones is finding out why you get them. Your health care provider will perform tests to find out what is causing this. After finding out why you get stones, your health care provider will give you tips to help stop them from coming back.
Some of the tests he or she may do are listed below.
Medical and Dietary History
Your health care provider will ask questions about your personal and family medical history. He or she may ask if:
- Have you had more than one stone before?
- Has anyone in your family had stones?
- Do you have a medical condition that may increase your chance of having stones, like frequent diarrhea, gout or diabetes?
Knowing your eating habits is also helpful. You may be eating foods that are known to raise the risk of stones. You may also be eating too few foods that protect against stones or not drinking enough fluids.
Understanding your medical, family and dietary history helps your health care provider find out how likely you are to form more stones.
Blood and Urine Tests
When a health care provider sees you for the first time and you have had stones before, he or she may want to see recent X-rays or order a new X-ray. They will do this to see if there are any stones in your urinary tract. Imaging tests may be repeated over time to check for stone growth. You may also need this test if you are having pain, hematuria or recurrent infections.
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