Normal Protein Levels In Urine

How Do I Know If I Have Protein In My Urine

Chemical examination of Urine— Proteins

You can have a simple urine test. This is part of a routine exam. You will be asked to pee into a clean cup called a specimen cup. Only a small amount of your urine is needed to do the test. Some of the urine is tested right away with a dipstick a thin, plastic strip that is placed in the urine. The rest is looked at under a microscope and sent to a laboratory, where a test called an ACR is done. An ACR shows whether you have albumin in your urine. A normal amount of albumin in your urine is less than 30 mg/g. Anything above 30 mg/g may mean you have kidney disease, even if your GFR number is above 60.

How Do Doctors Treat Protein In The Urine

Doctors treat the cause of protein in the urine:

  • If you have diabetes, your doctor will help create a treatment plan to keep it under control and slow down damage to your kidneys. They may recommend that you:
  • Check your blood sugar often
  • Take certain medicines
  • Follow a diabetes-friendly eating plan
  • Be active most days of the week
  • If you have high blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe a medicine to help lower your blood pressure and slow down damage to your kidneys. The types of medicine are:
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which are a group of medicines that lower blood pressure. They widen your blood vessels, help your kidneys get rid of extra water and lower the hormones that raise blood pressure.
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers , which are a group of medicines that lower blood pressure. They widen your blood vessels.
  • If you do not have diabetes or high blood pressure, your doctor may still prescribe an ACE inhibitor or an ARB to slow down damage to your kidneys.
  • Drinking water will not treat the cause of protein in your urine unless you are dehydrated. Drinking water will dilute your urine , but will not stop the cause of your kidneys leaking protein.

    If you have protein in your urine, talk with your doctor to choose the best treatment option for you.

    When To See A Healthcare Provider

    It can be difficult to know when it’s time to see a healthcare provider about proteinuria because the symptoms are often so vague . Even if you have foamy urine, you might figure that it was “something you ate” if you are otherwise feeling healthy.

    And, that can be a problem. Because not only is proteinuria an indication that you may have kidney disease, it is often a sign that kidney disease is advancing and becoming more serious.

    To this end, you need to seek immediate medical care if you experience the following:

    • Gradually diminishing urine output
    • Swelling of the legs, ankles, or feet
    • Extreme tiredness or weakness
    • Irregular heartbeat

    These are common signs of kidney failure, a condition in which the kidney function has dropped so severely that you may require hospitalization to avoid illness or death.

    This is especially true if the symptoms develop over the span of several hours or days. Without treatment, kidney failure is associated with a high risk of death.

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    Urine Protein And Urine Protein To Creatinine Ratio

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    • Also Known As:
    • Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio
    • UPCR

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    Protein In Urine Levels & Types Of Proteinuria

    Protein In Urine

    Urine and its composition are important in a number of medical diagnostic procedures. Proteins are found in urine at varying levels. A protein in urine normal range is used as a standard against which all results are compared. The level of proteins in urine may temporarily rise due to diet, physical exertion and disease. Presence of unusually high levels of protein in urine is called Proteinuria or Albuminuria.

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    Measurement Of Urine Albumin

    As in other parts of the world, routine measurement procedures for urine albumin in Australasia are predominantly immunoassay-based, mostly immunoturbidimetric. Work done by Comper and colleagues6 in 2002 suggested that immunoassay methods might significantly underestimate albumin, particularly in diabetic patients. However, subsequent work questioned the definitive resolution of albumin by the HPLC method used.7 Not all immunoassays perform equally and whether modified albumin is measured appears to depend on assay design, in particular whether polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies are used. Albumin has at least five antigenic sites and studies using polyclonal antibodies in a competitive assay design have been shown to measure some modified forms as well as non-human forms of albumin.8

    While standardisation is clearly important, the major cause of variation in urine albumin measurement occurs outside the analytical process and much can be done to improve practice in both the pre- and post-analytical phases. Important pre-analytical factors are listed in Table 1 the post-analytical phase is beyond the scope of this article.

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    What Does A Upep Test Measure

    Most of the proteins in your body that help keep you healthy can be placed into two major groups: albumin and globulins.

    Albumin is a single protein thats found in high levels in the blood. Most globulins are produced in the liver. They include four main types of proteins:

    • alpha-1 globulin

    Ask your doctor before you stop taking any medications.

    How Do Doctors Perform A Ph Urine Test

    Proteinuria – Protein in Urine – Dr. Gaytri Manek (formerly Gandotra)

    A doctor may ask for a one-time urine sample, or a 24-hour urine test, where a person collects their urine several times over the course of one day.

    A person will collect a one-time urine sample using the clean-catch method to prevent bacteria from entering the sample by catching the urine midstream. This method requires a person to clean their genital area, release a small amount of urine, and collect about 2 ounces or 60 milliliters of urine for pH testing.

    Both one-time samples and 24-hour urine samples undergo urinalysis.

    A urinalysis has three major components:

    • Physical, visual exam: When a doctor or laboratory technician examines the urine, they will look at its color, whether foreign material such as blood is present in the urine, and whether the urine appears foamy.
    • Chemical dipstick test: A dipstick test involves holding a piece of specially treated paper called litmus paper in a urine sample. The dipstick will change color to show how acidic or alkaline the urine is. It may also change color if other substances, such as glucose, white blood cells, bilirubin, or proteins are present in the urine.
    • Microscopic exam: A laboratory technician will examine a small amount of urine under a microscope to look for particles, such as red blood cells, crystals, or white blood cells. These are not usually present in the urine and can indicate an underlying medical condition.

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    What Is The 24

    The 24-hour urine protein test checks how much protein is being spilled into the urine, which can help detect disease or other problems. The test is simple and noninvasive.

    Urine samples are collected in one or more containers over a period of 24 hours. The containers are kept in a cool environment and then sent to a lab for analysis. Specialists then check the urine for protein.

    When higher-than-normal amounts of protein are in the urine, its called proteinuria. This is often a sign of kidney damage and disease.

    The test doesnt show what kinds of protein are in the urine. To determine this, your doctor may also order tests such as a serum and urine protein electrophoresis. The test also doesnt show the cause of the protein loss.

    Occasionally, proteinuria isnt a sign of kidney damage. This is especially true for children. Protein levels may be higher during the day than the night. Other factors, such as extreme exercise, may also influence the test results.

    The 24-hour urine protein test consists of multiple samples of urine taken over a 24-hour period. Its different from a protein-to-creatinine ratio test, which uses just one sample of urine. The 24-hour urine protein test may be given as a follow-up to a positive protein-to-creatinine ratio test.

    If I Have Albuminuria Does It Mean I Have Kidney Disease

    It may be an early sign of kidney disease, but your doctor will check you again to make sure albuminuria is not caused by something else, like not drinking enough water. If your doctor suspects that you have kidney disease, the test for albumin will be repeated. Three positive results over three months or more is a sign of kidney disease.

    You will also be given a simple blood test to estimate GFR. GFR stands for glomerular filtration rate. Your GFR number helps determine how well your kidneys are working.

    You may also be given:

    • Imaging tests. . This produces a picture of your kidneys and urinary tract. It can show whether your kidneys have kidney stones or other problems.

    • A kidney biopsy. This can help find out what caused your kidney disease and how much damage to the kidneys has happened.

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    Is There Anything Else I Should Know

    The different methods of detecting protein in the urine vary in performance. For example, a positive dipstick protein may be elevated due to other sources of protein, such as blood, semen, or vaginal secretions in the urine. Since it measures primarily albumin, the dipstick may occasionally be normal when significant quantities of other proteins are present in the urine.

    A 24-hour urine sample gives the protein elimination rate over 24 hours. It will be accurate only if all of the urine is collected. The protein to creatinine ratio is more of a snapshot of how much protein is in the urine at the time the sample is collected. If it is elevated, then protein is present if it is negative, the amounts or the type of protein released in urine may not be detectable at that time.

    What Is Total Protein

    Urinalysis Interpretation for Pediatricians

    Proteins are one of the building blocks of every cell. They also play an important role in many biological processes. They are essential for growth and development, nutrient and hormone transport, and immune function .

    Normally, albumin makes up for slightly more than half of the proteins in the blood , and the remainder of the protein count are the globulins .

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    Clinical Definition Of Urine Protein/ 24

    The trace of protein in urine is frequently measured as a screening test, whenever a urinalysis is performed. This may be done as part of a routine physical, a pregnancy workup, when a urinary tract infection is suspected, as part of hospital admission, or whenever the doctor wants to evaluate kidney function. Proteins are the “building blocks” of the human body.

    The albumin to Creatinine Test Ratio test measures the degree of protein leakage from the kidneys and may help assess the degree of kidney inflammation. However, the 24-hour Urine Protein Test is an alternative to the albumin to creatinine ratio.

    Normal Urinalysis Results And Interpretation Of Abnormal Results

    1. Appearance

    Normal: Urine is clear or light yellow in color with no odor.

    Clinical Implications: The appearance of your urine may change when it contains bacteria, white blood cells, fat, red blood cells, or chyle. A changed appearance may indicate urinary tract or renal infection.

    The appearance of your urine may also change because of certain drugs. Pyridium can change the urine to dark orange color and dorban can make it look red.

    Diabetes, dehydration and starvation can make the urine have a fruity odor.

    2. PH

    Normal Values: 4.5 to 7.2

    Clinical Implications: Normally, your urine is slightly acidic, but an infection can make it alkaline. There may be a change in the pH level of your urine at different times during the day. Your diet and water intake can also make a difference. An optimum pH is usually about 6.0.

    3. Specific Gravity

    Normal Values: 1.005 to 1.025

    Clinical Implications: It refers to the weight of your urine as compared to water. Specific gravity goes up when your urine is highly concentrated, and specific gravity comes down when the water content is high.

    Low specific gravity may indicate conditions such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus, pyelonephritis, or acute tubular necrosis. High specific gravity indicates dehydration, nephritic syndrome, liver failure, acute glomerulonephritis, heart failure, or shock. If you don’t have a normal urinalysis result, ask your doctor for help.

    4. Protein

    Normal Values: Less than 150 mg/d

    8. Casts

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    Testing For Urine Protein

    If your kidneys are functioning normally, you should have almost no detectable protein in your urine 2.Several common laboratory tests are used to check for proteinuria, including urine dipsticks for quick screening purposes, automated instruments for a more sensitive measurement of total protein and 24 hour urine collections to look for protein loss over time 12. Although results can vary somewhat between different laboratories, the amount of protein in a random sample of urine is normally less than 8 mg/dL and for a 24-hour collection, less than 150 mg total, according to MedlinePlus 2.

    Normal Urinalysis Results And Clinical Implications

    How To Lower Protein in urine, Proteinuria & Improve Kidney Health & Kidney Function

    Your doctor may order a urinalysis, a test of urine, to detect a number of problems, including kidney disease, urinary tract infections and diabetes. The test involves checking the concentration, appearance, and content of urine. If you do not receive a normal result, it usually means that you have an underlying illness or disease. So what is considered normal for a urine test?

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    Normal Protein Levels In Urine

    Normally, negligible amount of protein is present in urine. Read on to know the causes of high protein in urine. The article also explains how to lower protein in urine. Scroll down.

    Normally, negligible amount of protein is present in urine. Read on to know the causes of high protein in urine. The article also explains how to lower protein in urine. Scroll down.

    To measure the amount of protein in urine, a random sample and/or a 24-hour urine sample is used. The test that helps measure the protein content of urine is known as dipstick test. Presence of a protein like albumin in urine mainly indicates kidney problem. This condition is known as proteinuria or albuminuria or urine albumin. Albumin is actually abundantly present in blood. Proteins, the building blocks of the body are necessary to strengthen the cellular function, muscles, bones, hair and nails. Proteins strengthen the immune system and help keep away diseases. Losing protein through urine can lead to several health complications.

    What Are The Normal Protein Levels In Urine

    Protein levels are also frequently mentioned in urine test, which can be an indicator of the urination health. Tiny amounts of protein are typically in our urine however, most tests will not detect these tiny amounts, as they cause no harm. However, some dipstick tests will spot kidney problems and other maladies that are indicated by higher or lower than normal protein levels. Some common issues, such as pregnancy, fever, and extensive exercise, can lead to more than normal protein in the urine.

    Urine Test

    This test is extremely simple. It requires a sample of urine in a cup, which is then tested by dipping a special ‘stick’ or paper tab into the urine. The test results are usually available within minutes and will tell you what your protein levels are. For a more extensive test, your doctor might ask you to collect your urine over a 24-hour period.

    Normal values of protein in urine are typically between 0 and 20 mg/dL. For the 24-hour collection, anything below 80 mg/dL is considered normal. Again, remember that the range might vary, depending upon the laboratory used.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    High amounts of protein in the urine might mean heart failure, kidney damage, severe dehydration, urinary tract infections or tumors, as well as problems with a current pregnancy, such as preeclampsia. A high urine protein result usually means that your doctor will go one step further and test your blood for normal protein levels.

    Possible Treatment

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    What Happens When Chronic Kidney Disease Or Another Serious Condition Is Diagnosed Or Suspected

    A doctor who suspects kidney disease would repeat the urine test three times over three months. If the samples test positive for proteins each time, the patient likely has kidney disease. The earlier the diagnosis, the more chance doctors have to slow the disease and stop it from progressing.

    Additional tests might include:

    What If Proteinuria Is Present Without Inflammation Or Bleeding

    17 Best images about Protein in Urine on Pinterest

    If proteinuria is present and there is no sign of inflammation or bleeding, then serious kidney disease may exist. The best test to determine the severity of the problem is the urine protein:creatinine ratio . A protein:creatinine ratio that remains persistently high is a reliable indicator of serious kidney disease and possibly kidney failure. Further investigation is recommended and could include doing blood tests to assess kidney function, testing for bacterial infection or infectious disease, performing an ultrasound of the kidneys and possibly doing a kidney biopsy. Once a diagnosis has been made, effective management of the problem may be possible.

    Contributors: Malcolm Weir, DVM, MSc, MPH Kristiina Ruotsalo, DVM, DVSc, Dip ACVP Margo S. Tant BSc, DVM, DVSc

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