How To Increase Protein Synthesis

Protein Timing And Muscle Protein Synthesis

5 Ways to Increase Protein Synthesis without Eating More Protein

While some studies have shown that consuming 20 to 25 grams of protein at a time increases protein synthesis in the body, others say that an intake of around 40 grams also results in reducing the breakdown rate. This is the primary reason why bodybuilders should consume protein before and/or after their workout.This serves as the perfect trifecta: provides amino acids as raw materials, increases muscle protein synthesis, and decreased muscle protein breakdown. Ideally, 0.8 to 1.2 grams of protein per pound of body weight per day is needed to accomplish this.

Absolute Protein Intake To Maximize Post

Figure 1. Percent-change from fasted of mixed muscle protein synthesis and whole body leucine oxidation after resistance exercise in response to graded intakes of egg white protein, as adapted from Moore et al. . Data conform to one phase-exponential decay and linear correlation, respectively . Hashed line represents 95% CI.

Would Sex Affect The Relative Protein Requirement

Currently, research that evaluates the nutritional factors that enhance muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise is primarily performed in young males with that of female athletes being unfortunately under-represented. For example, the only studies to evaluate the ingested protein dose-response, either at rest or after resistance exercise, have performed these investigations in males only . The reason for the unfortunate disparity in sex-based research is unclear but may include, in part, the potential influence of menstrual phase on protein kinetics, which has been reported to alter the basic requirements for some EAA at rest as well as influence whole body protein metabolism during endurance exercise . However, the stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise is uninfluenced by the menstrual phase . Moreover, both the rested , and the exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis are similar between young men and women in the fasted state, suggesting sex per se has little influence on the regulation of muscle protein remodeling in the absence of any nutritional manipulation.

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The Ultimate Guide To Muscle Protein Synthesis

Last updated: By Jorn Trommelen

Muscle protein synthesis is the process of building muscle mass.

Muscle protein synthesis is essential for exercise recovery and adaptation. As such, its a really popular topic in the fitness community.

But the methods used to measure muscle protein synthesis in studies are very complicated. Some basic knowledge of the various methods is essential to draw proper conclusions from the research youll read.

The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive guide on muscle protein synthesis: what is it, how is it measured, what are the strengths and limitations, how to draw proper conclusions from muscle protein synthesis research, and of course practical guidelines how to optimize it.

Ive made a table of contents, so you can jump to specific sections of interest or reference a specific section.

Please note that section 3 described the various methods to measure muscle protein synthesis. You might want to skip this section if you just want exercise and nutrition guidelines to optimize gains. Perhaps you can come back to it later when you are ready to become a true muscle protein synthesis research master.

Ill be covering:

Protein is the main building block of your muscle.

Protein synthesis is the process of building new proteins. This process happens in all organs. Muscle protein synthesis is the process of building specifically muscle protein.

Icipants Characteristics And Dietary Intake Records

How To Increase Protein Synthesis ~ Anabolicco

Participants characteristics are shown in . Daily habitual food intake provided 9.8 ± 2.9 and 7.9 ± 2.4 MJ/d in the 2 d prior to the experimental trial in the CHEESE and MILK group. Carbohydrate, fat, and protein provided 45 ± 10 and 47 ± 6%, 35 ± 8 and 33 ± 5%, and 17 ± 4 and 17 ± 4% of the energy consumed in the CHEESE and MILK group. Protein intake averaged 1.4 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.5 g per kg body mass per day in the CHEESE and MILK group, respectively.

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From Rna To Protein: Translation

Like translating a book from one language into another, the codons on a strand of mRNA must be translated into the amino acid alphabet of proteins. Translation is the process of synthesizing a chain of amino acids called a polypeptide. Translation requires two major aids: first, a translator, the molecule that will conduct the translation, and second, a substrate on which the mRNA strand is translated into a new protein, like the translators desk. Both of these requirements are fulfilled by other types of RNA. The substrate on which translation takes place is the ribosome.

Remember that many of a cells ribosomes are found associated with the rough ER, and carry out the synthesis of proteins destined for the Golgi apparatus. Ribosomal RNA is a type of RNA that, together with proteins, composes the structure of the ribosome. Ribosomes exist in the cytoplasm as two distinct components, a small and a large subunit. When an mRNA molecule is ready to be translated, the two subunits come together and attach to the mRNA. The ribosome provides a substrate for translation, bringing together and aligning the mRNA molecule with the molecular translators that must decipher its code.

Watch this video to learn about ribosomes. The ribosome binds to the mRNA molecule to start translation of its code into a protein. What happens to the small and large ribosomal subunits at the end of translation?

Regulation Of Mps By Exercise Training

The effect of exercise training on MPS is less well studied. Although a number of studies cite increases in âbasal or postabsorptiveâ MPS as a result of training per se, they may simply be confirming the prolonged acute effects, especially where measurements were made less than 24 h following the last bout of exercise . Nonetheless, there are data which suggest that exercise training shortens the duration of the anabolic response, which could be due to greater acute adaptive efficiency , or perhaps the laws of diminishing returns in terms of adaptive responses.

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Potential Caveats To Acute Relative Protein Requirements

The reanalysis of the relative protein intake to maximize post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis performed herein incorporates studies performed in healthy young individuals consuming a single, high-quality protein source . While this approach increases homogeneity and allows for greater ease of comparison between studies, the results could be viewed as representing relative protein requirements under ideal conditions, notwithstanding the increased appreciation for the anabolic potential of whole foods . The following sections will briefly discuss conditions under which relative protein intakes may not be transferable and/or require further study.

Have A Protein Shake For Breakfast

Everything You Need To Know About Muscle Protein Synthesis ft. Jorn Trommelen

Many smoothies contain a lot of fruit, vegetables, or juice, but very little protein.

However, a shake or smoothie can be a great breakfast option, especially if you choose nutritious ingredients.

Protein powders make it easy to create a healthy, high protein shake. There are several types on the market, including whey, soy, egg, and pea protein.

Whey protein powder has been studied the most and seems to have an edge over the others when it comes to helping you feel full (

Heres a basic whey shake recipe:

Whey Protein Shake

  • 8 ounces of unsweetened almond milk
  • 1 scoop of whey powder
  • 1 cup of fresh berries
  • stevia or another healthy sweetener, if desired
  • 1/2 cup of crushed ice

Combine all ingredients in a blender and process until smooth.

To boost the protein content even further, use extra protein powder or add peanut butter, almond butter, flaxseeds, or chia seeds.


Having a protein shake for breakfast helps you start the day off right. Whey may be the best type to use.

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From Dna To Rna: Transcription

DNA is housed within the nucleus, and protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm, thus there must be some sort of intermediate messenger that leaves the nucleus and manages protein synthesis. This intermediate messenger is messenger RNA , a single-stranded nucleic acid that carries a copy of the genetic code for a single gene out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where it is used to produce proteins.

There are several different types of RNA, each having different functions in the cell. The structure of RNA is similar to DNA with a few small exceptions. For one thing, unlike DNA, most types of RNA, including mRNA, are single-stranded and contain no complementary strand. Second, the ribose sugar in RNA contains an additional oxygen atom compared with DNA. Finally, instead of the base thymine, RNA contains the base uracil. This means that adenine will always pair up with uracil during the protein synthesis process.

Stage 1: Initiation. A region at the beginning of the gene called a promotera particular sequence of nucleotidestriggers the start of transcription.

Stage 2: Elongation. Transcription starts when RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA segment. One strand, referred to as the coding strand, becomes the template with the genes to be coded. The polymerase then aligns the correct nucleic acid with its complementary base on the coding strand of DNA. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that adds new nucleotides to a growing strand of RNA. This process builds a strand of mRNA.

Resistance Exercise Nutrition And Protein Synthesis

Skeletal muscle is continually breaking down and synthesizing protein. If muscle is going to maintain its mass, the net level of protein balance must equal zero. If muscle is going to gain mass, protein synthesis must exceed protein breakdown. While it may be common to view resistance training as a powerful stimulus for protein synthesis, it is also important to recognize that it is a signal for protein breakdown. Phillips et al.6 has shown that resistance exercise results in increased muscle net protein balance for 2448 hours. Both protein anabolism and catabolism increase after exercise, but the increase in anabolism is relatively larger, causing the net muscle protein balance to be positive. In his experiment, Phillips et al.6 used 8 sets of 8 concentric and eccentric muscle actions at 80% of each subjects single repetition maximum effort. The participants in the study were allowed to consume meals prior to and after the exercise. This is important, as later research showed a lack of protein synthesis after exercise when nutrition was absent.7 Esmarck et al.8 resistance trained 2 groups for 12 weeks and showed that a control group receiving no nutrition for 2 hours post-exercise decreased lean body mass while those consuming 10gm of protein immediately after exercise increased lean mass.

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Protein And Exercise Magnify Mps

Combining optimum nutrition with exercise has a much greater effect on muscle protein synthesis than either protein consumption or exercise has on MPS alone.

If you are reading this blog, this is probably something that you have already figured out on your own.

This is exemplified by the fact that acute increases in muscle protein synthesis after exercise in the absence of adequate intake of protein will be overshadowed by a prolonged rise in muscle protein breakdown.

Remember, the battle is always between muscle breakdown and synthesis and without adequate protein intake, the muscle breakdown forces will outweigh the muscle gain forces. This results in a net muscle loss also called negative nitrogen balance.

You can’t build or remodel muscle without amino acids!

When you increase the dietary essential amino acid availability after exercise, the magnitude and duration of MPS is significantly increased. Therefore, in essence, exercise is able to pre-condition muscle to delay the muscle full set point.

This is a key factor and why we always recommend to athletes that they take high-quality whey protein following training or competition

Muscle Protein Synthesis: What Is Muscle Protein Synthesis


If youve spent much time reading about nutrition, supplements, and training, chances are youve heard of Muscle Protein Synthesis . MPS is the biological process of building new proteins, specifically muscle tissue. Protein synthesis occurs in response to exercise and resistance training and utilizes amino acids to rebuild and repair muscle mass. Were going to cover what muscle protein synthesis is and how certain supplements and nutrition can maximize your muscle growth, to get the hard-earned gains youve been working for.

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How To Optimize Muscle Protein Synthesis

1. Monitor your protein intake, quality, and timing.

Quality.Dietary protein provides amino acids needed for the synthesis of muscle protein, and that means emphasizing high-quality protein sources with complete amino acid profiles. *

Dietary protein-derived essential amino acids act as signals to induce muscle protein synthesis. Differences in protein types and sources result in differences in the magnitude of the muscle protein synthesis response, largely because of the differences in the availability of essential amino acids to the muscle. This availability depends on different factors, including a proteins essential amino acid composition and overall content. Suboptimal protein sources are associated with a lower essential amino acid content or shortage in a specific amino acid such as L-leucine, L-lysine, or L-methionine. All these amino acids are needed for protein synthesis and lack of one or more will compromise the protein synthesis response.*

Steroid Users And Protein Synthesis

On the other hand, enhanced lifters are artificially increasing protein synthesis with drugs. The steroids keep protein synthesis elevated around the clock. Their workouts of course increase protein synthesis to an even higher degree, but hitting each muscle more often isn’t needed because the overall rate of synthesis will stay elevated all the time.

Some studies have found that taking anabolic steroids led to some muscle growth without any training. I’m not saying that people get huge that way, but it certainly prevents losing the adaptations that can occur from only training a muscle once per week.

Natural lifters need the workout to elevate protein synthesis. And since it only stays elevated for 24-36 hours after a workout, they need to hit each muscle more often if they hope to make significant gains. Enhanced lifters will also make more gains with higher frequency training, but it’s not as necessary for them.

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Putting It All Together

Studies and literature are the backbone of the scientific method, but it’s all worthless if you don’t have a practical means to apply that information.

With that in mind, here’s how to put this all into practice.


  • Protein Source: 30-50g of any medium to fast-acting protein source. Whole-food is okay, but you may want to restrict whole-food protein closer to 60 minutes out than 30 minutes out. Examples of fast-acting protein sources include mixtures of whey and casein isolates/hydrolysates and concentrates like Metabolic Drive® Low Carb.
  • Carb Source: Optional, but if you plan to train hard, you should include carbs. 25-75g of low to medium GI carbs. Example is a cup of oatmeal with a cup of blueberries.
  • John’s favorite pre-workout meal: Lean animal protein, 30 grams of carbs , and 1-2 tablespoons of almond or peanut butter mixed into oats.
  • Bill’s favorite pre-workout meal: Whey protein isolate with approximately 45 grams carbs from 1/2 cup oatmeal mixed with 1/2 cup unsweetened applesauce.


  • Protein Source: 10-20g of BCAAs or 20-30g of isolates / hydrolysates from casein or whey or a mixture like Plazma or MAG-10®.
  • Carb Source: Optional. 35-50g of high glycemic carbs, sipped throughout the workout.

The insulin response from carbs may synergistically amplify protein synthesis in the presence of amino acids. Insulin is also a powerful inhibitor of protein degradation.


Whats The Difference Between Collagen Type I Ii Iii And The Rest Of Them

How Omega 3 Helps Build Muscle: Increase Protein Synthesis- Thomas DeLauer

There are several types of collagen, but upwards of 90% of the bodys collagen is made up of Types I, II and III.

Most collagen protein supplements are also made up primarily of Types I and III.

Type II collagen is the primary component of joint cartilage, and the most bioavailable version when taken orally, requiring a much smaller dosage than Types I and III to be effective for improving joint health. Upwards of 90% of your body’s extracellular matrix is made of Type II collagen.

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Not All Proteins Are Equal: Leucine Triggers Muscle Protein Synthesis More Effectively Than Others Study

Related tags:Protein, leucine, ,

Dr Stuart Phillips, a professor from McMaster Universitys Department of Kinesiology, was speaking at the event Building towards Sustainable Physical Activity Behaviour organised by International Life Sciences Institute South East Asia recently.

In his presentation, he highlighted that the amino acid leucine was more effective in triggering muscle protein synthesis as compared to the others.

Of all the amino acids, leucine has taken on the role of prominence This is the branched-chain amino acid that triggers the response of muscle protein synthesis, he said.

Citing a number of scientific studies, he said that compared to adding branched-chain amino acids to whey protein, or increasing the consumption of whey protein, adding leucine was more effective in augmenting muscle protein synthesis.

A study involving elderly women also showed that leucine consumption helped to stimulate muscle protein synthesis during both rest and exercise.

It is not just an added response, it is actually synergistic and it is driven by a single amino acid, he said when explaining the impact of leucine.

Supplements with good scientific evidence

As part of the International Olympic Committee , Philips pointed out that only a few sports supplements have shown good evidence for enhancing muscle protein synthesis.

Intervening factors

There are a number of factors that will intervene with the amount of protein intake required for muscle protein synthesis.

If You’re Looking To Add Mass Take These Supps To Hit That Growth Sweet Spot

    If youre looking to add mass, muscle growth requires a delicate balance of muscle buildup and muscle breakdown. Muscle buildup is technically known as muscle protein synthesis. This involves the assembling of amino acids into the proteins that make up muscle fibers. Muscle breakdown involves the removal of amino acids from these proteins. Most bodybuilders make the mistake of focusing only on muscle buildup by using supplements that primarily boost protein synthesis. Yet impeding muscle breakdown, technically known as catabolism, is just as important as increasing muscle protein synthesis.

    Thats because muscle growth occurs only when muscle protein buildup increases at a greater rate than muscle protein breakdown. To mix our metaphors a bit, a good analogy is a brick wall, where the bricks symbolize amino acids. If you add three bricks to the wall but five bricks fall off , the wall gets smaller. If you add five bricks and only three bricks fall off, the wall gets bigger.

    Jordan Beal / EyeEm

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