What Are Whey And Casein
Whey and casein are two different types of protein. Theyre the sources of protein found in both breast milk and cows milk, as well as the milk of any other mammals.1 This is why theyre the protein sources in routine infant formulas.
As we explore these two protein types, theres one key concept to keep in mind: although both human and cows milk contain whey and casein protein, the actual whey and casein proteins in each type of milk are quite significant different. While it makes some sense for infant formulas to mimic the whey and casein ratio of breast milk, protein is more complex than just ratios! The finer details of the composition of different types of whey and casein, as well as how they function in the body, are also considered when infant formulas are designed.
Infant formula manufacturers consider all of these elements, so be assured that each product is carefully designed with the health and nutrition of your baby in mind.
Lets Begin With The Basics
Protein, carbohydrate, and fat make up 98 percent of infant formula. Protein and carbohydrates have the most impact on your babys comfort while digesting, so I always recommend parents choose a formula based on these ingredients.
You can literally ignore the front of the formula label. What a relief! These labels are full of competing messages. Words like sensitive and gentle are not regulated and dont mean anything.
Instead, flip over the can and look at the list of ingredients. Focus on the first few ingredients before the less than 2% long list of vitamins and minerals. Those first few ingredients will tell you what type of protein and carbohydrates are used in that formula.
Yes, theres both dairy-based and soy-based formula. But the more important digestion question is: How BIG are the proteins your baby is drinking?
Infant Formula And Protein Levels
There are some interesting findings in relation to child obesity and I think its time to have a look at this in relation to formula vs. breast feeding. Im examining the popular range of infant formulas in relation to protein and its most enlightening.
Recently infant formula manufacturers have examined protein levels in infant formula in relation to childhood obesity. The protein in infant formula is either casein or whey dominated. Casein is harder to digest, stays in the stomach longer and is the curds. Whey is easier to digest and is the watery milk. Some formulas are a balance of casein and whey, others are whey dominant.
Amino acid content differs from breast milk and a higher protein level is required to meet minimum amounts of specified amino acids, especially tryptophan. Remember that blog I wrote recently on tryptophan and helping babies sleep?
A review of links between protein levels of infant formula and cows milk and obesity and chronic disease in adulthood is now available. This is really interesting and new information. This evidence suggests that preferable levels of protein in formula to promote growth rates similar to breastfed infants are similar to the levels in human milk, subject to a minimum content of specific amino acids.
Human breast milk contains 11.1 g protein per 100 ml compared to cows milk with 3.3 g per 100 ml.
Nan HA Gold has 1.3g per 100ml protein is 100% whey
Recommended Reading: What Protein Should I Get
Amount Of Iron In Infant Formula
Welcome to the nutritional iron content in 89 different types of infant formula, ranging from 9.5 mg to 0.14 mg per 100g. The basic type of infant formula is Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, GENTLEASE, powder, where the amount of iron in 100g is 9.3 mg.
The percentage of the recommended daily allowance for iron is based on a 14 mg RDA level for a mature adult.
Ially Hydrolyzed Protein Formula
Partially hydrolyzed protein is smaller. Hydrolyzed literally means broken apart. The proteins in partially hydrolyzed formulas are broken down to be smaller in size, closer to the size of breast milk proteins. If these proteins were a car, theyd be a Honda Civic.
On the list of ingredients, you will see the words partially hydrolyzed in front of the protein. For example, Enfamil Gentlease is a partially hydrolyzed formula, and the list of ingredients includes partially hydrolyzed nonfat milk.
The only real way to know if a formula is partially hydrolyzed is to look for those words on the ingredients list. For instance, Gerber Good Start Soy formula is a partially hydrolyzed protein, which is different than the full-size soy protein in Enfamil ProSobee and Similac Soy Isomil.
Because partially hydrolyzed proteins take less digestion to be absorbed, they may be a good choice for some newborn infants or infants who are experiencing discomfort digesting the full-size proteins, or who have a history of digestive issues.
Read Also: Where Can I Buy Whey Protein
Types Of Formula Preparation
Baby formula comes in 3 formats: Powder, liquid concentrate, and ready-to-use. They are the same from a nutritional standpoint, but the type you choose will depend on your budget, storage capacity, and time constraints.
- Powder: is the cheapest option, but it requires the most work to prepare. Since it is dry the powder can be stored for a long time without going bad, and needs to be mixed with water for your baby to drink.
- Liquid concentrate: is more expensive than powder, but is easier to prepare because it blends more readily with water than a dry powder. Once the container is open, however, it must be used within 24 hours.
- Ready-to-use: are the most convenient because they do not have to be mixed with water, however they are the most expensive.
Infant Formula Mead Johnson Enfamil Gentlease Powder
The full nutrition content, RDA percentages and levels for Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, GENTLEASE, powder should be considered along with the iron content. This food profile is part of our list of food and drinks under the general group Baby Foods.Other important and iron related nutrients are Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate. For this 100g serving in your diet, the amount of Calories is 514 kcal , the amount of Protein is 11.8 g , the amount of Fat is 27 g and the amount of Carbohydrate is 56 g . The nutritional content and facts for 100g, which includes Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate is shown in the RDA chart below as percentages of the recommended daily allowance along with the iron levels in infant formula.
Our proprietary nutritional density score gives a nutritional value out of 100 based on 9 different vitamins, minerals and macro nutrients. Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, GENTLEASE, powder has a nutritional value score of 15 out of 100.Comparing the iron content and the nutritional density in 100g for Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, GENTLEASE, powder We class this as a high iron content item.In terms of overall nutritional value we class this as an item with a medium nutritional density value.
Recommended Reading: How Can Vegans Get Protein
Which Amino Acids Should Be Taken Into Account
Although there is a relation between total protein intake and the growth rate, this relation does not apply to each amino acid in milk proteins. Some amino acids, notably glycine and arginine, are supplied in milk in quantities that are much less than the needs of the neonate. As a result, milk-fed neonates carry out a tightly regulated transfer of nitrogen from amino acids in excess to the deficient ones . The designation of which amino acids are essential or indispensable has not changed substantially over time , although some disagreement exists over the possible requirements for some amino acids, including for roles other than in protein synthesis. The most notable difference is that histidine is now considered essential, whereas previously it was deemed conditionally essential . Arginine and histidine are included by the European Community in their list of human milk amino acids that must be matched in infant formulas. The recent National Academy of Sciences dietary reference intakes for amino acids cite new studies that suggest -amino nitrogen in the form of glutamate, alanine, or aspartate may be nutritionally essential, perpetuating the controversy over just which amino acids are essential .
References: Nutrients And Calories In Breast Milk
For very extensive information on the opens in a new windownutrients and calories in breast milk, I recommend Nutrition During Lactation. This volume is available opens in a new windowonline.
Auestad et al. 2001. Growth and Development in Term Infants Fed Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Double-Masked, Randomized, Parallel, Prospective, Multivariate Study. Pediatrics 108 : 372-381
Auestad et al 2003. Visual, Cognitive, and Language Assessments at 39 Months: A Follow-up Study of Children Fed Formulas Containing Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to 1 Year of Age. Pediatrics 112 : e177-e183
Ben Shaul DM. 1962. The composition of the milk of wild animals. International Zoo Yearbook 4: 333-342.
Bernhart FW. 1961. Correlations between growth-rate of the suckling of various species and the percentage of total calories from protein in the milk. Nature 191: 358-360.
Brenna TJ et al. 2007. Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. Am J Clinical Nutrition 85: 1457-1464.
Department of Health and Social Security. 1988. Present day practice in infant feeding: third report: report of a Working Party of the Panel on Child Nutrition, Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy: Report on Health and Social Subjects 32. Her Majestys Stationery Office, London.
Gopalan C, Ramasastri BV, and Balasubramanian SC. 2000. Nutritive value of Indian foods. Hyderabad, India: NIN, ICMR.
Also Check: What Are Examples Of Proteins
Infant Formula List Iron Content Per 100g
Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 16 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 3 scoop :Nutritional Value : 15 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 16 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 15 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 15 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 15 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 16 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 15 / 100Profile for a 100g serving :Typical Serving size of 1 scoop :Nutritional Value : 15 / 100
Baby Formula With Special Additives
Some baby formulas have extra ingredients added to them to make them more like breastmilk. But this doesnt necessarily mean those ingredients will work in the same way as breastmilk in your babys body.
Here are some common extra ingredients added to baby formula, with information about whether theyre likely to do your baby any extra good:
- LCPs: these are important for brain and nerve development. But theres no clear evidence that babies can absorb ingredients like LCPs when theyre added to formula. Formula with added LCPs might be helpful for formula-fed premature babies brain development.
- Betacarotene: this is a source of vitamin A and anti-oxidants. Most formulas already have added vitamin A and anti-oxidants. Theres no real evidence that betacarotene formulas are better for your baby.
- Prebiotics and probiotics: these can help formula-fed babies grow healthy bacteria in their bowels. The bacteria might help your baby have softer poo and less nappy rash. It might also help reduce the chance of gastroenteritis.
Also note that these formulas might be more expensive than other formulas.
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How Do You Switch Your Baby From Breast Milk To Baby Formula
Successfully weaning your baby, either fully or partially, from breast milk to baby formula during their first 12 months of life is a multi-step process.
Check out these nine steps to successful weaning to make this switch easier for you and your baby in Weaning Your Baby: Switching From Breast Milk To Formula.
Evidence Of High Protein Content Formulas For Infants Leading To Obesity In Later Life
Infant and Children|December 1, 2015| Author: The Super Pharmacist
Protein is critical for developmentvirtually every structure in the human body contains protein as its core building block. If protein levels it a baby’s diet are too low, growth and development may be hindered. On the other hand, infants can be given too much protein during development.
Excessive protein can cause a number of unwanted effects, but the greatest risk appears to be obesity later in life. We review the literature on safe and effective protein levels for infants.
Also Check: How To Reduce Protein In Urine
The Model Of Breast Milk
Appropriate protein intake is essential to meet the nutritional needs of infants and should be envisioned in relation to the gold standard of breast milk. According to the World Health Organization, exclusive breastfeeding by a healthy mother is the feeding standard from birth to 6 mo in healthy, term infants. Breastfeeding is encouraged up to 2 y of age, provided that a normal diversification of feeding with good-quality complementary foods is begun at the 7th month. Several assumptions are now well substantiated: breast milk alone can meet nutrient needs during the first 6 mo, with the possible exception of needs for vitamin D in certain populations and for iron in infants of relatively low birth weight. Estimates of protein requirements in the first half of infancy have been based on the protein composition of human milk and assume that the protein requirements of most infants are met by breast milk. However, monitoring of the growth of breastfed infants with the use of national or international growth charts suggests that breastfed infants fall off growth trajectories, especially in the second 6 mo of life. The growth charts themselves were developed from measures of growth of mostly formula-fed infants and thus may not represent the expected normal growth of breastfed infants. New growth charts based on infants breastfed throughout the first year of life are presently being developed by the World Health Organization.
What Are Complete And Incomplete Proteins
Complete proteins contain all nine of the Essential Amino Acids that we mentioned earlier in this article.
Incomplete proteins contain some but not all of these Essential Amino Acids. As youll see from the protein sources listed below, most animal sources of protein are complete.
Whilst certain plant sources of food contain complete proteins, most do not.
So does this mean that babies following a vegetarian diet are at risk of protein deficiency?
No because its possible for baby to receive all the amino acids he needs from a variety of sources of incomplete proteins. In other words, the amino acids lacking in one food will be compensated by those present in another.
Combining two or more sources of incomplete proteins will make up a complete protein, providing baby with all the amino acids he needs.
Experts used to believe that in order to effectively combine various incomplete proteins to provide the full component of Essential Amino Acids those following a vegetarian diet should eat a variety of plant sources at one meal.
But recommendations have changed and research has shown that this is no longer necessary. Instead, medical professionals now advise that vegetarians can receive complete proteins by consuming a variety of plant foods within a period of 24 hours .
Also Check: What’s The Best Whey Protein Isolate
Nutrients With Limited Evidence
To more closely mimic the natural composition of breast milk, many baby formula manufacturers supplement their products with fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid . However, theres little clinical evidence to indicate these nutrients when supplemented in baby formula benefit the health outcomes of infants.
Theres just not a lot of evidence, says Helen Hughes, M.D., a pediatrician in Baltimore and assistant professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Its hard to conduct randomized control trials in babies to begin with, and these are generally healthy babies, so theres not a lot of need from a research standpoint to study it. So with additives like DHA and ARA, which are now essentially in all formulas, there just isnt a lot of evidence behind whether or not theyre needed.
Many formulas also feature prebiotics commonly found in breast milk, such as human milk oligosaccharides , and probiotics with the goal of nurturing gut health and immune function. Early studies suggest probiotics can be helpful in healthy children experiencing acute viral gastroenteritis and other infections, and prebiotics can assist with softening stools, which may be beneficial for some infants. While the data is promising so far, more research is needed.
Highest Iron Content Per 100g
Using the list below for the 89 different infant formula nutrition entries in our database, the highest amount of iron is found in Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, PROSOBEE LIPIL, with iron, powder, not reconstituted, with ARA and DHA which contains 9.5 mg of iron per 100g. The associated percentage of RDA is 68 %. For this 100g serving the Calories content is 510 kcal, the Protein content is 12.5 g, the Fat content is 27 g, the Carbohydrate content is 53 g.
The lowest amount of iron in 100g is in Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, low iron, ready-to-feed which contains 0.14 mg. This gives as percentage of the recommended daily allowance 1 % of the RDA. For this 100g serving the amount of Calories is 65 kcal, the amount of Protein is 1.36 g, the amount of Fat is 3.55 g, the amount of Carbohydrate is 6.93 g.
The difference between the highest and lowest values gives a iron range of 9.36 mg per 100g. The range for the other nutrients are as follows 445 kcal for Calories, 11.14 g for Protein, 23.45 g for Fat, 0 g for Carbohydrate.
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