Q: Can The Vaccine Mrna Alter Cellular Dna Or Rna
A: No. For the vaccine mRNA to alter someones DNA, several events would need to occur. First, the vaccine mRNA would need to enter the cell nucleus, where DNA resides. However, vaccine mRNA does not have the nuclear access signals that would allow it to enter the nucleus it cant get in. Second, even if it made it into the nucleus, the mRNA would have to be converted to DNA. This would require an enzyme called reverse transcriptase, which the mRNA vaccines dont contain. Third, an enzyme would be needed for DNA derived from the vaccine mRNA to insert itself into cellular DNA the mRNA vaccines dont contain such an enzyme.
The vaccine mRNA also cannot alter cellular RNA. The vaccine mRNA is delivered to the cytoplasm, where it is translated by ribosomes, resulting in the creation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The vaccine does not contain any splicing enzymes and the mRNA does not encode any proteins that would allow for RNA modification. Furthermore, the vaccine mRNA is not self-amplifying and cannot be transferred from cell to cell. Following translation, it is rapidly degraded. The vaccine mRNA remains in the cell cytoplasm for just a few days before it is destroyed . Of note, there are more than 200,000 cellular mRNAs per cell, each making a host of proteins and enzymes. The mRNA vaccines introduce only a few copies of mRNA into cells.
In short, the mRNA vaccines lack all of the basic requirements necessary to alter DNA or RNA.
What About The Spike Protein
While the vaccines themselves are rapidly removed, what then happens to all the spike proteins that are produced as a result?
Theyre identified as foreign by the immune system and destroyed teaching the cells to recognise the coronavirus in the process.
But antibodies specifically targeting the spike protein produced by your immune system remain in the body for many months after vaccination.
The vaccines also stimulate your immune system to produce memory immune cells. This means even once antibody levels diminish, your immune system is ready to produce more antibodies and other immune cells to tackle the virus if youre ever exposed to it.
Do I Need To Quarantine If I’m Vaccinated But Have Been Exposed To Someone With Covid
If youve been exposed to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, you are not required to quarantine if all of the following are true, according to the CDC:
- You are fully vaccinated for COVID-19 and its been at least 2 weeks since your last dose .
- Its been less than 3 months since your final dose in the series.
- You’ve remained asymptomatic since your current COVID-19 exposure.
You May Like: What Are Premier Protein Shakes Good For
Q: What Were The Most Common Adverse Reactions Related To The Mrna Covid
A: The most common adverse effects reported in the Phase 3 trials of the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines included injection site pain, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, chills and joint pain . The rates of local and systemic adverse events following vaccination were similar between the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines. These adverse events were more common in younger vaccine recipients and after the second dose of vaccine. Similar findings were observed in an analysis of reports submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System and v-safe, which included data on 13,794,904 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines administered in the U.S. from Dec. 14, 2020 to Jan. 13, 2021 .
Ultrasensitive Blood Test Detects Viral Protein Confirms Mrna Vaccine Activates Robust Immune Response
- Brigham and Women’s Hospital
- In series of samples collected from individuals vaccinated against COVID-19, an ultrasensitive test detected low concentrations of circulating antigen. Following robust production of antibodies, investigators found that the viral protein declined to undetectable levels.
The carefully orchestrated dance between the immune system and the viral proteins that induce immunity against COVID-19 may be more complex than previously thought. A new study by investigators at Brigham and Women’s Hospital used an ultrasensitive, single-molecule array assay to detect extremely low levels of molecules in the blood and measured how these levels change over the days and weeks following vaccination. The team found evidence of circulating protein subunits of SARS-CoV-2, followed by evidence of the body mounting its immune response and then clearing the viral protein to below the level of single-molecule detection. Results are published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
The team found that 11-of-13 participants had low levels of SARS-CoV-2 protein as early as one day post-vaccination. S1 subunit protein level peaked on average five days after the first injection. In all participants, the level of S1 protein declined and became undetectable by day 14. Spike protein was detected in 3-of-13 participants an average of 15 days after the first injection. After the second vaccine dose, no S1 or Spike was detectable.
You May Like: Which Protein Powder Can You Buy With Food Stamps
How Do Vaccines Work
All vaccines, no matter the technology, have the same fundamental goal to introduce the immune system to an infectious agent, without the risk that comes from disease.
The vaccine needs to follow a similar pathway a virus would have taken to produce an adequate immune response. Viruses enter our cells and use them to replicate themselves. So, the vaccines also need to be delivered in cells where proteins are produced, which mimics a component of the virus itself.
The COVID vaccines all do this by delivering information into our muscle cells, usually in our upper arm. They do this in different ways, such as using mRNA, like Pfizers and Modernas, or viral vectors, like AstraZenecas.
Regardless of the technology, the effect is similar. Our cells use the genetic template in the vaccine to produce the coronavirus spike protein, which is a part of the virus that helps it enter our cells. The spike protein is transported to the surface of the cell where its detected by the immune cells nearby.
There are also other specialised immune cells nearby, which take up the spike proteins and use them to inform more immune cells targeting them specifically against COVID.
These immune cells include B cells, which produce antibodies, and T cells, which kill virus-infected cells. They then become long-lasting memory cells, which wait and monitor for the next time it sees a spike protein.
Is It Common To Have A Stronger Reaction After The Second Covid
It is normal to have a stronger reaction after the second dose because that’s when your immune system really kicks into gear. That big immune response is what causes the stronger reaction. It’s called a boosting phenomenon, and it builds an even greater ability to defeat COVID-19. Here’s how it works:
When you get the first dose, your body learns to make antibodies to fight COVID-19. Then you get the second vaccine, and you already have the antibodies ready to go, so that shot kicks them into action. That more robust immune response accounts for the stronger reactions. Those reactions tell you the vaccine is working.
Although stronger reactions after the second dose are common, experts say some people may have little or no reaction.
To help with the stronger side effects, it’s OK to take Tylenol or other over-the-counter pain relievers after your shot but not before to help ease discomfort. As always, you will want to consult with your physician.
You May Like: Are Protein Shakes Covered By Ebt
Q: In The Johnson & Johnson/janssen Covid
A: The Phase 3 trial of Ad26.COV2.S included 1,218 individuals with HIV, which constituted 2.8% of the total study population. There were too few outcomes among this subgroup to draw any meaningful conclusions about vaccine efficacy. Specifically, there were 5 cases of moderate to severe/critical COVID-19 in both the vaccine and placebo group starting at least 14 days after vaccination, and 2 cases in the vaccine group and 4 in the placebo group starting at least 28 days after vaccination. Safety and immunogenicity studies in immunocompromised individuals are planned, but details of these studies are not yet available.
Q: Are There Any Concurrent Medications That Are Uniquely Contraindicated In Recipients Of Mrna Vaccines Will Patients Need To Stop Any Medications Prior To Vaccination
A: There are currently no medications that are contraindicated in individuals receiving mRNA vaccines. Due to lack of data on safety and efficacy of the vaccine administered simultaneously with other vaccines, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should be administered alone with a minimum interval of 14 days before or after administration of any other vaccines.
Based on the estimated half-life of monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma as well as evidence suggesting that reinfection is uncommon in the 90 days after initial infection, vaccination should be deferred for at least 90 days as a precautionary measure until additional information becomes available, to avoid interference of the antibody treatment with vaccine-induced immune responses.
Q: What Do We Know About The Ability Of The Covid
A: The primary efficacy endpoints of all the COVID-19 vaccine trials were clinical disease however, all of the studies collected data that provide some insight on the ability of these vaccines to prevent asymptomatic infection, including surveillance nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 viral testing and/or serologies. Since baseline serostatus was known in all these studies, if a subject converted from negative to positive serology during the trial in the absence of a COVID-19 illness, it would imply asymptomatic infection. Some of the vaccines have additionally been evaluated in post-authorization studies in various settings where they have been deployed. Below is a summary of what is known about the impact of each vaccine on asymptomatic infection note that these studies were conducted prior to the emergence of novel variants of concern, including Delta, and these findings may not be generalizable to all variants whose viral kinetics may be substantially different from ancestral strains of SARS-CoV-2:
Pfizer-BioNTech Multiple post-authorization observational studies of BNT162b2 in diverse settings suggest that this vaccine is effective against asymptomatic infection.
United Kingdom: An analysis of new SARS-CoV-2 infections among U.K. health care workers following a mass vaccination campaign with BNT162b2 identified 51 asymptomatic cases among unvaccinated individuals compared with only 10 in the vaccinated cohort .
What Do We Know About The Toxicity Of Spike Proteins Made From Covid
This explainer is more than 90 days old. Some of the information might be out of date or no longer relevant. Browse our homepage for up to date content or request information about a specific topic from our team of scientists.
This article has been translated from its original language. if you have any feedback on the translation.
The spike proteins from mRNA vaccines are not known to harm our bodies. Vaccines go through very rigorous standards set by the U.S. FDA to meet safety and efficacy criteria. Thousands of people underwent clinical trials over several months to understand if there were any side effects or risks associated with the vaccines. The vaccines are still being monitored for any safety concerns or patterns that could risk human well-being. So far, there is no scientific evidence available that suggests that spike proteins created in our bodies from the COVID-19 vaccines are toxic or damaging organs of our body, as is being claimed on some social platforms.
Don’t Miss: Can I Buy Protein Powder With Food Stamps
So What Happens To The Vaccine
Once theyve initiated the immune response, the vaccines themselves are rapidly broken down and cleared from the body.
The mRNA vaccines consist of a fatty shell, which encapsulates a group of mRNA particles the genetic recipe for the spike protein. Once this enters a cell, the shell is degraded to harmless fats, and the mRNA is used by the cells to produce spike proteins.
Once the mRNA has been used to produce proteins, its broken down and cleared from the cell along with the rest of the mRNAs produced by the normal function of the cell.
In fact, mRNA is very fragile, with the most long lasting only able to survive for a few days. This is why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines have to be so carefully preserved at ultra-low temperatures.
The vector vaccines use an adenovirus, which is harmless in humans, as a vector to deliver a genetic template for the spike protein to the cells.
The vector virus has all of its infectious components removed, so its unable to multiply or cause disease. Then a genetic template for the spike protein is inserted into the vector.
Once the vaccine is injected, the vector virus binds to your cells and inserts its genetic components, before the shell breaks down and is removed.
Normally, this would cause the cell to start producing more copies of the virus, but since this was all removed, all thats produced is the spike protein.
Virus Spike Protein Vs Vaccine
The spike proteins from the virus and the ones generated by the vaccines are essentially the same, McLellan, the spike protein researcher at the University of Texas at Austin, told us, noting that they have the same function, structure and way of processing.
But, he said, there is one key difference, in that the spikes encoded by the vaccines contain 2 amino acid changes that help stabilize the spike in its initial conformation and help prevent the spike from undergoing a conformational change that is required to facilitate membrane fusion.
Thats because the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is a shape-shifter. To fuse its viral membrane with the host cell membrane it substantially changes its shape from an unstable pre-fusion state to a stable post-fusion state. While previously working on a vaccine for MERS, a disease caused by another coronavirus, McLellan and others discovered that by adding two proline molecules to the spike protein, they could lock it into its pre-fusion state, triggering a more effective immune response and preventing cell entry. The same harmless mutation, called 2P, as in two proline molecules, is used in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
During a SARS-CoV-2 infection, the NIAID told us, the virus spike proteins can latch onto human cells, allowing the virus to infect them. With the live virus, the protein attaches to receptors on the surface of cells and fuses the viral membrane with the host-cell membrane, McLellan said.
Read Also: Premier Protein Clear Protein Drink Review
How Do Mrna Vaccines Work
Vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna were the first to be granted emergency use authorization by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Theyre not identical, but they attack the disease using the same method, and both require two doses for the best protection from the COVID-19.
Unlike vaccines that put a weakened or inactivated virus in your body to activate an immune response, the two COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA, or mRNA, to deliver a message to your immune system. In this case, the message tells your cells to create a harmless piece of a specific spike protein thats found on the surface of COVID-19. Your body recognizes that the spike protein doesnt belong and starts creating antibodies to remove it. In doing so, your bodys immune system becomes prepared to fight the virus if you encounter it.
Its important to know that mRNA doesnt affect your genes in any way because it never enters the nucleus of cells, where your DNA is kept. After the mRNA does its job, it breaks down and is flushed out of your system within hours. Its also important to know that although mRNA technology for vaccines is new, the mRNA technology itself isnt. Therapies using mRNA have been around for years and are currently being used to treat cancer and viral diseases.
Q: If Someone Has A History Of Covid
A: Large-scale data on side effects in this particular group are not yet available. All of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines have been demonstrated to be safe in patients with a prior history of documented SARS-CoV-2 infection . In an immunogenicity study of 110 individuals with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, participants who were seropositive at baseline did experience more systemic adverse events associated with vaccination compared with those who were seronegative at baseline, but there were no serious adverse events reported in either group .
Also Check: What Are Premier Protein Shakes Good For
Q: Are The Mrna Vaccines More Efficacious Than The Viral Vector Vaccines
A: None of the COVID-19 vaccines have been directly compared head-to-head in the same population, and so the point estimates of vaccine efficacy for the mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines cannot be directly compared with each other. The clinical trials for these vaccines were conducted at different times in different populations. Furthermore, the outcomes used to calculate the efficacy estimates differed between the studies . The Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines have all been evaluated for emergency use authorization and met the efficacy criteria pre-specified by the FDA. They all have high efficacy, especially against severe COVID-19.
Spike Protein Damages Vascular Cells
Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola Fact Checked
- Researchers used a pseudo virus made of a cell surrounded by spike proteins but without a viral component to demonstrate the spike proteins can damage human cells and alter mitochondrial function
- Many of the long-haul symptoms attributed to COVID-19 may be the result of endothelial damage that triggers poor flow through the capillaries, inflammation and tissue hypoxia
- Data show up to 10% of all people who contracted COVID experienced long-haul symptoms, but none of Dr. Vladimir Zelenkos patients who were treated within the first five days of infection developed persistent symptoms
- As researchers are seeking another target for future vaccine development, French authorities announced five people developed myocarditis after receiving the Pfizer vaccine. Twelve VAERS reports in the U.S. listed myocarditis
During 2020, many people learned more about coronaviruses, and specifically the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. Pictures of the spiked virus have been plastered across the news media.
The image is reminiscent of a chain mace, or flail. This was a medieval weapon with a spiked steel ball at the end of a chain or leather strap. The image may be frightening. It turns out researchers believe the spikes are responsible for significant vascular damage leading to severe disease.1
Don’t Miss: What Protein Powder Can I Buy With Food Stamps